The following article reviews the current literature addressing toilet training individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. The review addresses programs typical to toilet training the developmental disability population, most of which are modeled after the original Foxx and Azrin [Azrin, N. H., & Foxx, R. M. (1971). A rapid method of toilet training the institutionalized retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 4, 89–99; Foxx, R. M., & Azrin, N. H. (1973). Toilet training persons with developmental disabilities: A rapid program for day and nighttime independent toileting. Harrisburg, PA: Help Services Press] rapid toilet training methods. Components of such programs are isolated and described in their contribution to toilet training models. Studies are then reviewed and compared for participant and study characteristics. Individual studies validating toilet training programs are then discussed in light of their program components and efficacy. Shortcomings to currently available programs are highlighted and future areas of study are suggested.
Differentiated Effects of Paper and Computer-Assisted Social Stories™ on Inappropriate Behavior in Children With Autism
Despite evidence from previous studies that support using Social Stories™ for problem behaviors, research conducted with more rigorous controls is needed to examine whether or not Social Stories constitute an evidence-based practice.This study employed an ABABCBC single-subject design comparing a Social Story presented in two formats across three elementary-age students with autism. Interpretation of the results documents a decrease in the frequency of problem behavior for each participant. Outcomes were slightly better for the PowerPoint™ format than for the paper format. Results were maintained in the training setting and were generalized to another setting with a single verbal prompt. Teachers reported that the PowerPoint format was easily implemented, and students indicated that they liked the computer-assisted format.
Utilizing Social Stories to Increase Prosocial Behavior and Reduce Problem Behavior in Young Children with Autism
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a Social Story intervention on the behavior rates of 4 young children
with autism using a multiple-baseline across participants design. The results of this paper indicate that the Social Story was
modestly effective in increasing prosocial behavior rates in 3 of the 4 participants, though none of the participants reached the
prosocial behavior rates of age and gender-matched peers. The problem behaviors of the participants modestly decreased with
the intervention. Maintenance of skills over a 1-month period was demonstrated for all of the participants. The variable and
inconsistent results of the research add to the current literature base in support of the use of Social Stories for some children with
Social Intervention for Adolescents With Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacy of Reciprocal Imitation Training
Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design to examine whether RIT could improve social behaviors in four adolescents with autism and significant ID. All adolescents improved their spontaneous imitation and two improved their joint engagement. In addition, two adolescents decreased their rate of self-stimulatory behaviors over the course of treatment. Overall, these results suggest that RIT may be effective at improving social interaction and decreasing self-stimulatory behavior in adolescents with autism and significant ID.
Systematic Review of Interventions Involving Aided AAC Modeling for Children With Complex Communication Needs
Building the communicative competence of individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) requires intervention and support. This systematic review examined experimental studies involving aided AAC modeling to promote the expressive communication of children and youth (i.e., birth to age 21) with complex communication needs. A search yielded 48 studies involving 267 participants. Interventions were categorized according to three different approaches to aided AAC modeling—augmented input, models as prompts, and models within instructional demonstrations. Although the procedures varied, interventions were generally effective at improving diverse measures of expressive communication. This review provides insight for both researchers and practitioners by describing interventions involving three distinct approaches to aided AAC modeling, highlighting areas needing future research, and offering implications for practice.