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Toilet training individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities: A critical review

Effect(s): Human Functioning
System(s) of support: Dignity and Respect, Education across the lifespan
Target Group(s): Developmental Disability, Intellectual Disability
Age Group(s): Adolecents, Adults, Children / Youth

Article summary

The following article reviews the current literature addressing toilet training individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. The review addresses programs typical to toilet training the developmental disability population, most of which are modeled after the original Foxx and Azrin [Azrin, N. H., & Foxx, R. M. (1971). A rapid method of toilet training the institutionalized retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 4, 89–99; Foxx, R. M., & Azrin, N. H. (1973). Toilet training persons with developmental disabilities: A rapid program for day and nighttime independent toileting. Harrisburg, PA: Help Services Press] rapid toilet training methods. Components of such programs are isolated and described in their contribution to toilet training models. Studies are then reviewed and compared for participant and study characteristics. Individual studies validating toilet training programs are then discussed in light of their program components and efficacy. Shortcomings to currently available programs are highlighted and future areas of study are suggested.

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